Uterine Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis | Symptoms | Diagnosis | Treatment


What is Adenomyosis?

Adenomyosis is not a cancerous disease of the uterus symptoms and signs are similar to uterine fibroids. The adenomyosis happens from lining cells of the uterine cavity which growing into the muscle wall of the uterine muscles. During the menstrual cycle, these cells in the muscle bleed as well. And bleeding into the muscle directly causes pain. As the blood collection, the adjacent muscle causes swelling and become fibrous tissue due to irritation. This swollen area within the uterine muscle wall, called an adenomyoma, which on sonogram scan mimic as fibroid

The condition can be located throughout the entire uterus and it become bulky and heavier also called diffuse adenomyosis or uterine endometriosis or localized in one spot (focal adenomyosis).


Diagnosis of Adenomyosis


The diagnosis/confirmation of adenomyosis is suspected if the uterus appear bulky (enlarged) and painful to the touch during the internal examination. However, the diagnosis of adenomyosis based on these findings is often not correct.

The final diagnosis of adenomyosis may be by scanning using ultra-sonography (USG) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The internal ultrasound (TVS) is the most accurate, cheap and widely available. Both scanning technique shows an enlargement uterus. On ultrasound scan, the uterus will have a heterogeneous pattern, without the focal well-defined wall.

MRI provides better diagnostic capability due to the increased soft tissue differentiation and able to differentiate adenomyosis from multiple small uterine fibroids. The uterus will have a thickened junctional zone. A thickness of the junctional zone greater than 10 to 12 mm is diagnostic of adenomyosis (<8 mm is normal). Interspersed within the thickened, hypointense signal of the junctional zone, one will often see foci of hyperintensity (brightness) on the T2 weighted scans representing small cystically dilatated glands or more acute sites of microhemorrhage.

MRI can be used to classify adenomyosis based on the depth of penetration of the ectopic endometrium into the myometrium.

Symptoms of Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis may be mild and cause no symptoms at all, Though adenomyosis is considered a benign (not life-threatening) condition, it can have a negative impact on a woman’s quality of life. The common symptoms are: –

  • Heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding
  • Severe menstrual cramping pain that worsen with age
  • Someone with adenomyosis might also feel pain during sexual activities
  • Passing of blood clots during period, bleeding between periods or light spotting
  • Bladder pressure leading to a constant urge to urinate
  • Pressure on bowel, leading to constipation and bloating
  • Abnormally enlarged abdomen
  • The uterus might also increase in size and feel very tender to the touch

Cause of Adenomyosis

  • Although the cause of adenomyosis is not known, there are some speculative theories about what might trigger this painful condition
  • Some doctors believe procedures such as a cesarean section can promote the invasion of the endometrial cells into the uterine walls
  • Adenomyosis lies within the development of the uterus during fetal development. This means that it would originate by the endometrial tissue being deposited into the uterine muscle while you are still a female fetus
  • There is also speculation that adenomyosis is caused by uterine inflammation during childbirth. When a woman is postpartum, an inflammation of the uterine lining can occur. This inflammation might break the normal boundaries of the cells within the uterine wall
  • One aspect that doctors can agree on however is that the growth directly depends upon the production of estrogen. Women who have decreased estrogen production due to menopause will see the adenomyosis go away on its own.
  • Since the cause is not exactly known, it is also a little hard to narrow down all of the risk factors associated with the condition. Childbirth and prior uterine surgery are the only two risk factors associated with adenomyosis that are known at this time. Anytime you have a surgery on your uterus, you are at a higher risk for developing adenomyosis due to the possible break in the uterine wall
  • Cesarean section and removals of fibroids are the two most common uterine surgeries that could cause this condition

Impact on Lifestyle due to Adenomyosis

Adenomyosis is a painful condition but overall is not harmful to your body. The excessive bleeding can have an effect on your daily life and so can the unbearable pain, which might cause you to feel very uncomfortable. You might not find activities as enjoyable as you used to because the risk of bleeding during the activity. Painful periods are also a problem and can affect your work or school routine, often leaving you calling in sick. The painful periods could also affect your romantic life and make having a relationship difficult. The pain could lead to anxiety, depression, irritability and feelings of helplessness. You should always seek medical attention if you feel any symptoms related to adenomyosis, so that you can find appropriate treatment options to help you cope with the condition.



Treatment options of Adenomyosis (uterine endometriosis)

Adenomyosis has been a frustrating disease to treat; medical treatment with oral progesterone or birth control pills often does not work. Hysterectomy (surgical removal of uterus) is the only treatment option known to be highly (100%) effective. According to a recent study, the progesterone-containing IUD (Mirena) can help with menstrual cramping for short time in about 40 to 50% of women. The most common side effects from the IUD were weight gain (29%), benign ovarian cysts (22%) and lower abdominal pain (12%).

Experiencing any symptoms such as pain or intense bleeding are signs you should get to the doctor immediately to be checked out. The quicker you can get a diagnosis then the quicker you will be able to find appropriate treatment.


  • Non-surgical Treatment Uterine artery embolization for Adenomyosis

Minimally Invasive treatment: It is a minimally invasive interventional radiological procedure, which means it requires only a tiny nick in the skin. It is performed under sedation or mild local anesthesia – feeling no pain and usually requires a hospital stay of one night. Many women resume light activities in a few days and the majority of women are able to return to normal activities within a week.

Benefit of uterine artery embolization

-It treated focal or diffuse adenomyosis.

-It treated adenomyosis associated single/multiple fibroids

UAE treats focal and diffuse adenomyosis and all uterine fibroids at the same time and is, therefore, an extremely effective.
The interventional Radiologist makes a small nick in the skin (less the ¼ of an inch) at groin, inserts a catheter, identifies uterine artery by using angiography with contrast media injection and then inject embolization particles (polyvinyl alcohol) that block the tiny vessels supplying adenomyosis and all the fibroids. This blockade of blood supply to abnormal enometriosis tissue and fibroids causes infarction) and subsequent degeneration of the adenomyosis and it starts reducing in size of uterus in few weeks. Symptoms like bleeding and pain resolve in 85% to 95% of patients.

Uterine artery embolization has many Indications:-

  • Focal or diffuse adenomyosis.
  • Single / multiple Uterine Fibroids.
  • Failed myomectomy / recurrence of fibroids after myomectomy
  • High risk patient for surgery like obesity, anemia, chronic renal failure etc.
  • Post-partum Hemorrhage
  • Bleeding from Cancer of Cervix & Uterus
  • Pre-operative embolization to reduce bleeding during uterine surgery.


Advantages of Uterine artery embolization

  • It is performed under mild sedation feeling no pain.
  • Requires only a tiny nick in the skin (No surgical incision of abdomen).
  • Recovery is shorter than from hysterectomy or open surgery
  • Virtually no adhesion or scar formation has been found. But in surgery adhesions are common.
  • Adenomyosis and if fibroids are present in uterus are treated at together in one sitting, which is not the case with surgery.
  • The overall successes rate is about 95%.
  • Uterine artery embolization involves virtually no blood loss or risk of blood transfusion.
  • If the presenting complaint was severe pain & excess vaginal bleeding, 90-95% of cases experiences resolution within 24 hours.
  • Emotionally, financially and physically – embolization can have an overall advantage over other procedures for the patient as the uterus is not removed.


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